3 min readAug 31, 2022


I started reading “La escuela moderne” — Francisco Ferrer Guardia
(1908) in Spanish.
The reading started out of curiosity, I didn’t expect to catch something new in the text.

The text is developed as if it were an account as objective as possible of why, how, when, and what the new school is. The author puts himself in a position of rational exposition of his experience, reporting the facts and the findings given and received.

This is the index:

I. Preliminary explanation
II. Miss Meunier: The meeting with the benefactress who made the material resources available was interesting.
III. Responsibility accepted
IV. Primitive program
V. Coeducation of both sexes :
simple exposition of something evident today and yet not so distant in some current cultures and situations in the world.
VI. Coeducation of social classes : this is my hot topic.

I will say it very clearly: the oppressed, the plundered, the exploited
they have to be rebellious, because they have to collect their rights until they achieve its complete and perfect participation in the universal heritage.
But the Modern School works on the children whom through education
and the instruction prepares to be men, and does not anticipate loves or hates, adhesions or rebellion, which are duties and feelings of adults (p. 29)

I remember that in middle school I ended up in a class of children of peasants and workers. Simple case? No, the social selection was made on the basis of sympathies between professional relatives who liked to intervene in the “pleasure” of having children together in the same class. We, on the other hand, children of people at work in the fields, on construction sites, the subtle pleasure of weaving relationships to one’s own pleasure was absent.

VII. School Hygiene
VII. The teaching staff : half surprise in reading this section. He begins by saying that teachers are poorly paid (Tiene más hambre que un maestro de escuela!) and immediately a news related to the situation in France where there is a lack of teachers comes to mind (Sur le monde: La pénurie d’enseignants, un problème qui existe presque partout en Europe. Pendant qu’en France des professeurs manquent à l’appel et que des contractuels sont recherchés, d’autres pays bricolent, eux aussi, tant bien que mal.)

Comiéncese la instrucción cuando el mismo niño la pida (p. 47)

In the child, there are numerous vocations, but these vocations will only manifest themselves in the midst and in the circumstances favorable to their externalization: all the value of education lies in respect for the physical, intellectual, and moral will of the child. I appreciate it a lot the reading. With joy, I honor his open, modern, rational and positive attitude and perspective.

IX. The renovation of school

Such are our projects: we do not ignore the difficulty of their realization; but
we want to start it, convinced that we will be helped in our
task for those who fight everywhere to emancipate humans from
dogmas and conventions that ensure the prolongation of the
iniquitous current social organization (p.58).

X. Neither reward nor punishment: to read by the future students who will become teachers

XI. Secularism and library
XII Sunday Conferences
XIII. Positive results
XIV. In legitimate defense
XV. Childish Naivety
XVI. Modern School Bulletin
XVII Closure of the Modern School

So yes, the text is that of a modern school.




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